Malaria parasites can be identified by examining a drop of the patient’s blood under the microscope. This drop is spread out as a “blood smear” on a microscope slide. Before the slide is examined, the blood specimen is stained (most often with the Giemsa stain) to give the parasites a distinctive appearance.
How do we best diagnose malaria in Africa?
The gold standard test for the diagnosis of malaria is microscopy. Evaluation of Giemsa-stained thick smears, when performed by expert microscopists, provides accurate diagnosis of malaria, although assuring expert slide preparation and reading can be difficult.
What part of Africa is malaria found?
The highest transmission is found in Africa South of the Sahara and in parts of Oceania such as Papua New Guinea. In cooler regions, transmission will be less intense and more seasonal. There, P. vivax might be more prevalent because it is more tolerant of lower ambient temperatures.
Why are malaria cases so high in Africa?
Africa is the most affected due to a combination of factors: A very efficient mosquito (Anopheles gambiae complex) is responsible for high transmission. The predominant parasite species is Plasmodium falciparum , which is the species that is most likely to cause severe malaria and death.
How is malaria being treated in Africa?
For many years the treatment of malaria in Africa has relied on chloroquine, sulfadoxine combined with pyrimethamine, and quinine, with the latter being used mainly to treat severe cases.
How bad is malaria in Africa?
The estimated number of malaria deaths stood at 409 000 in 2019, compared with 411 000 deaths in 2018. The WHO African Region continues to carry a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. In 2019, the region was home to 94% of all malaria cases and deaths.
What is the number one cause of death in Africa?
Leading 10 causes of death in Africa in 2019 (in deaths per 100,000 population)
|Characteristic||Deaths per 100,000 population|
|Ischaemic heart disease||429|
What country in Africa is most affected by malaria?
Most were in the WHO African Region, with an estimated 200 million cases, or 92% of global cases. In 2017, five countries accounted for nearly half of all malaria cases worldwide. Four of these were in Africa: Nigeria (25%), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (11%), Mozambique (5%), and Uganda (4%).
Why is there no malaria in Europe?
Malaria was eradicated from Europe in the 1970s through a combination of insecticide spraying, drug therapy and environmental engineering. Since then, it has been mostly imported into the continent by international travellers and immigrants from endemic regions.
Is malaria always fatal?
falciparum is the type of malaria that is most likely to result in severe infections and if not promptly treated, may lead to death. Although malaria can be a deadly disease, illness and death from malaria can usually be prevented. About 2,000 cases of malaria are diagnosed in the United States each year.
How long has malaria been a problem in Africa?
115 years of malaria in Africa.
How many have died from malaria in history?
Over millennia, its victims have included Neolithic dwellers, early Chinese and Greeks, princes and paupers. In the 20th century alone, malaria claimed between 150 million and 300 million lives, accounting for 2 to 5 percent of all deaths (Carter and Mendis, 2002).
What is the disease that kills the most?
Heart disease remains the number 1 killer; diabetes and dementia enter the top 10. Heart disease has remained the leading cause of death at the global level for the last 20 years. However, it is now killing more people than ever before.
Is malaria cured in Africa?
It appears as though the resistance evolved in malaria parasites in Africa rather than spreading from South East Asia to the continent. The result, however, is the same – malaria is getting harder to treat. Malaria infection is now commonly treated with a combination of two drugs – artemisinin and piperaquine.
What countries can you catch malaria?
Malaria is found in more than 100 countries, mainly in tropical regions of the world, including:
- large areas of Africa and Asia.
- Central and South America.
- Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
- parts of the Middle East.
- some Pacific islands.